Planetary Profiles

Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Neptune
Uranus
Pluto

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 Mercury

mercury

 

Mass (kg)............................................3.3 x 10^23
Diameter (km)........................................4878
Mean density (kg/m^3) ...............................5420
Escape velocity (m/sec)..............................4300
Average distance from Sun (AU).......................0.387
Rotation period (length of day in Earth days)........58.65 
Revolution period (length of year in Earth days).....87.97
Obliquity (tilt of axis in degrees)..................0
Orbit inclination (degrees)..........................7
Orbit eccentricity (deviation from circular).........0.206
Mean surface temperature (K).........................452
Maximum surface temperature (K)......................700
Minimum surface temperature (K)......................100
Visual geometric albedo (reflectivity)...............0.12
Largest known surface feature........................Caloris Basin(1350 km diameter)
Atmospheric components...............................trace amounts of hydrogen and helium

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Venus

venus

 

Mass (kg)............................................4.87 x 10^24
Diameter (km)........................................12104
Mean density (kg/m^3) ...............................5250
Escape velocity (m/sec)..............................10400
Average distance from Sun (AU).......................0.723
Rotation period (length of day in Earth days)........243.0 (retrograde)
Revolution period (length of year in Earth days).....224.7
Obliquity (tilt of axis degrees).....................178
Orbit inclination (degrees)..........................3.39
Orbit eccentricity (deviation from circular).........0.007
Mean surface temperature (K).........................726
Visual geometric albedo (reflectivity)...............0.59
Highest point on surface.............................Maxwell Montes 
                                (17 km above mean planetary radius)
Atmospheric components...............................96% carbon dioxide, 
                                                      3% nitrogen,  
                                                      0.003% water vapor
Surface materials....................................basaltic rock and 
						     altered materials
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Earth

earth

 

Mass (kg)............................................5.98 x 10^24
Diameter (km)........................................12756
Mean density (kg/m^3) ...............................5520
Escape velocity (m/sec)..............................11200
Average distance from Sun (AU).......................1
Rotation period (length of day in Earth hours).......23.93
Revolution period (length of year in Earth days).....365.26
Obliquity (tilt of axis in degrees)..................23.4
Orbit inclination (degrees)..........................0
Orbit eccentricity (deviation from circular).........0.017
Mean surface temperature (K).........................281
Maximum surface temperature (K)......................310
Minimum surface temperature (K)......................260
Visual geometric albedo (reflectivity)...............0.39
Highest point on surface.............................Mount Everest 
                                       (over 8 km above sea-level)
Atmospheric components...............................78% nitrogen, 
                                                     21% oxygen, 
                                                      1% argon
Surface materials....................................basaltic and 
					        granitic rock and 
					        altered materials
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Mars

mars

 

Mass (kg)............................................6.42 x 10^23
Diameter (km)........................................6787
Mean density (kg/m^3) ...............................3940
Escape velocity (m/sec)..............................5000
Average distance from Sun (AU).......................1.524
Rotation period (length of day in Earth days)........1.026
Revolution period (length of year in Earth days).....686.98
Obliquity (tilt of axis in degrees)..................25
Orbit inclination (degrees)..........................1.85
Orbit eccentricity (deviation from circular).........0.093
Maximum surface temperature (K)......................310
Minimum surface temperature (K)......................150
Visual geometric albedo (reflectivity)...............0.15
Highest point on surface.............................Olympus Mons 
		       (about 24 km above surrounding lava plains)
Atmospheric components...............................95% carbon dioxide, 
						      3% nitrogen, 
						      1.6% argon
Surface materials....................................basaltic rock and 
				                     altered materials
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Jupiter

jupiter

 

Mass (kg)............................................1.90 x 10^27
Diameter (km)........................................142,800
Mean density (kg/m^3) ...............................1314
Escape velocity (m/sec)..............................59500
Average distance from Sun (AU).......................5.203
Rotation period (length of day in Earth hours).......9.8
Revolution period (length of year in Earth years)....11.86
Obliquity (tilt of axis in degrees)..................3.08
Orbit inclination (degrees)..........................1.3
Orbit eccentricity (deviation from circular).........0.048
Mean surface temperature (K).........................120 (cloud tops)
Visual geometric albedo (reflectivity)...............0.44
Atmospheric components...............................90% hydrogen,
                                                     10% helium, 
                                                       .07% methane
Rings................................................Faint ring.
		      Infrared spectra imply dark rock fragments.
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Saturn

saturn

 
Mass (kg)............................................5.69 x 10^26
Diameter (km)........................................120660
Mean density (kg/m^3) ...............................690
Escape velocity (m/sec)..............................35600
Average distance from Sun (AU).......................9.539
Rotation period (length of day in Earth hours).......10.2
Revolution period (length of year in Earth years)....29.46
Obliquity (tilt of axis in degrees)..................26.7
Orbit inclination (degrees)..........................2.49
Orbit eccentricity (deviation from circular).........0.056
Mean temperature (K).................................88 K (1 bar level)
Visual geometric albedo (reflectivity)...............0.46
Atmospheric components...............................97% hydrogen, 
                                                      3% helium, 
                                                       .05% methane
Rings................................................Rings are 
	270,000 km in diameter, but only a few hundred meters thick. 
	Particles are centimeters to decameters in size and are ice (some
	may be covered with ice); there are traces of silicate 
	and carbon minerals. There are four main ring groups and three
	more faint, narrow ring groups separated by gaps called divisions.
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Uranus

uranus
 
Mass (kg)............................................8.68 x 10^25
Diameter (km)........................................51118
Mean density (kg/m^3) ...............................1290
Escape velocity (m/sec)..............................21300
Average distance from Sun (AU).......................19.18
Rotation period (length of day in Earth hours).......17.9
Revolution period (length of year in Earth years)....84
Obliquity (tilt of axis in degrees)..................97.9
Orbit inclination (degrees)..........................0.77
Orbit eccentricity (deviation from circular).........0.047
Mean temperature (K).................................59
Visual geometric albedo (reflectivity)...............0.56
Atmospheric components...............................83% hydrogen, 
                                                     15% helium, 
                                                      2% methane (at depth)
Rings................................................Uranus has 
        a system of narrow, faint rings. Ring particles are dark, 
	and could consist of rocky or carbonaceous material.

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Neptune

Neptune

 
Mass (kg)............................................1.02 x 10^26
Diameter (km)........................................49528
Mean density (kg/m^3) ...............................1640
Escape velocity (m/sec)..............................23300
Average distance from Sun (AU).......................30.06
Rotation period (length of day in Earth hours).......19.1
Revolution period (length of year in Earth years)....164.8
Obliquity (tilt of axis in degrees)..................29.6
Orbit inclination (degrees)..........................1.77
Orbit eccentricity (deviation from circular).........0.009
Mean temperature (K).................................48
Visual geometric albedo (reflectivity)...............0.51
Atmospheric components...............................74% hydrogen, 
                                                     25% helium,
                                                      1% methane (at depth)
Rings................................................Rings are 
                          narrow, and contain concentrations of 
			  particles called ring arcs.
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Pluto

Pluto

 

Mass (kg)............................................1.29 x 10^22
Diameter (km)........................................2300
Mean density (kg/m^3) ...............................2030
Escape velocity (m/sec)..............................1100
Average distance from Sun (AU).......................39.53
Rotation period (length of day in Earth days)........6.39
Revolution period (length of year in Earth years)....247.7
Obliquity (tilt of axis in degrees)..................122.5
Orbit inclination (degrees)..........................17.15
Orbit eccentricity (deviation from circular).........0.248
Mean temperature (K).................................37
Visual geometric albedo (reflectivity)...............about 0.5
Atmospheric components...............................perhaps 
                                                     methane and 
                                                     nitrogen 
Surface materials....................................perhaps 
						     methane ice
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