### Key Words, Concepts and Math Problemsfor the midterm

Key Words and Concepts

I recommend that you make several copies of this page. On the first copy, go through each term, look up the definitions/concepts and write them down. Take this sheet everywhere and study it. On the second and all subsequent copies, WRITE down the definitions without looking at the first copy. Review your work. Repeat the exercise until you can write all the definitions without looking at your original copy. DO NOT try to study in your head. Write them down. You will perform miserably on the exam if you just look at the word, say to yourself "I know that" then move on. When you are forced to write something out, you reveal whether you truly understand it or not. If you have trouble with some of these definitions, e-mail me. I have intentionally added a few sprinkles to make you think.

1. weak Gaia hypothesis

2. strong Gaia hypothesis

3. homeostasis

4. chemical disequilibrium

5. endosymbiosis

6. eukaryotes

7. prokaryotes

8. archaebacteria

9. properties of living matter

10. coccolithophorids

11. cloud condensation nuclei or CCN

12. dimethyl sulfphides or DMS

13. latitude

14. longitude

15. Tropic of Cancer

16. Tropic of Capricorn

17. Arctic Circle

18. Antarctic Circle

19. tropical zone

20. temperate zone

21. polar zone

22. prime meridian

23. international date line

24. Greenwich Mean Time

25. trend

26. variables

27. x-axis

28. y-axis

29. z-axis

30. dependent variable

31. independent variable

32. scale

33. contour

34. multiple x-axes

35. water column

36. depth

37. bathymetry

38. topography

39. spatial scale

40. temporal scale

41. Pangaea

42. continental drift

43. Laurasia

44. Gondwanaland

45. Alfred Wegener

46. Harry Hess

47. 3 pieces of evidence for continental drift in Wegener's time

48. 3 new pieces of evidence for continental drift provided by oceanographers

49. polar reversals

50. magnetic striping

52. mid-ocean ridges

53. sea-floor sediments

54. age of rocks

55. divergent boundary

56. convergent boundary

57. transform boundary

58. subduction

59. oceanic crust

60. continental crust

61. basalt

62. granite

63. asthenosphere

64. iron core

65. planetary differentiation

66. lithosphere

67. mantle

68. convection

69. oceanic-oceanic convergence

70. oceanic-continental convergence

71. continental-continental convergence

72. submarine trench

73. submarine canyon

74. plate tectonics

75. Tuzo Wilson

76. hot spots

77. outgassing

78. Archaen period

79. oxygen holocaust or revolution

80. stromatolites

81. cyanobacteria

82. age of the Earth at 4.6 bya

83. first appearance of life at 3.8 bya

84. Age of Bacteria

85. mitochondria

86. chloroplast

87. DNA

88. multicellular life

89. Volvox

90. banded iron formations

91. atmospheric concentration of oxygen

92. continental shelf

93. continental slope

94. continental rise

95. abyssal plains

96. seamount

97. guyot

98. atoll

99. zooxanthellae

100. black smoker

101. hydrothermal vents and origins of life

102. subterranean archaebacteria

103. Europa

104. Cambrian explosion

105. K-T boundary

106. polar molecule

107. latent heat of vaporization

108. latent heat of fusion

109. heat capacity

110. physical states of matter

111. evaporation

112. precipitation

113. sublimation

114. transpiration

116. Coriolis effect

117. Ekman spiral

118. upwelling

119. what causes upwelling, when and where

121. westerlies

122. horse latitudes

123. doldrums

124. atmospheric circulation cells

125. differential heating of the planet

126. eastern boundary currents (name four)

127. western boundary currents (name four)

128. equatorial currents (name three)

130. Gulf Stream

131. cold core rings

132. eddies

133. coastal jets

134. warm core rings

135. satellite imagery of SST

136. National Data Buoy Center

137. TOPEX/Poseidon

138. sea surface height

139. ecological succession

Math Problems

One or more of these problems in a slightly modified version (i.e. the exact numbers will be changed) will be given on the midterm. Try working them out and ask a member of your 10-point X-game study group what answer they got. Post a question about these math problems in the Midterm Questions Forum and I will answer it.

1A. You are an ordinary seaman on a ship located at the intersection of the equator and the international date line. You desperately want to move up in ranks because you are tired of cleaning toilets. Your chance comes when the navigator falls overboard while looking at jellyfish. His last words are "One degree of longitude equals 60 nautical miles." A day goes by. The Captain tells you that the ship has sailed sixty (60) nautical miles due east since the tragic accident. If you can tell him the ship's new position, you get the job. What is the ship's new longitude and latitude? (Hint: think about what you need to know to answer this question. Look back through your notes to find the key information.)

1B. You are an ordinary seaman on a ship located at the intersection of the equator and the international date line. You desperately want to move up in ranks because you are tired of cleaning toilets. Your chance comes when the navigator falls overboard while looking at jellyfish. His last words are "One degree of latitude equals 60 nautical miles." A day goes by. The Captain tells you that the ship has sailed sixty (60) nautical miles due north since the tragic accident. If you can tell him the ship's new position, you get the job. What is the ship's new longitude and latitude? (Hint: think about what you need to know to answer this question. Look back through your notes to find the key information.)

2. The Captain, a demanding sort, now wants to know the depth of the water. He gives you a Toys-R-Us Sonar Unit, good enough to report the time it takes a sound pulse to travel from the ship to the bottom and back, but not good enough to calculate the distance. You remember from your oceanography class at Fullerton College that sound travels at approximately 1500 meters per second. You set up the Sonar unit, hit the go button, it pings and 12 seconds later the ping returns. How deep is the bottom in meters?

3. The Captain has an old chart with soundings in miles. Now he wants to know how deep is the bottom in miles. The ship hasn't moved since your first sounding and the ping returns after 12 seconds. How deep is the bottom in miles?

4. How many calories does it take to heat zero degree Celsius liquid water to 100 degree Celsius water vapor (gas)? Why is the answer 640 calories?