Key Words and Concepts
I recommend that you make several copies of this page. On the first copy, go through each term, look up the definitions/concepts and write them down. Take this sheet everywhere and study it. On the second and all subsequent copies, WRITE down the definitions without looking at the first copy. Review your work. Repeat the exercise until you can write all the definitions without looking at your original copy. DO NOT try to study in your head. Write them down. You will perform miserably on the exam if you just look at the word, say to yourself "I know that" then move on. When you are forced to write something out, you reveal whether you truly understand it or not. If you have trouble with some of these definitions, e-mail me. I have intentionally added a few sprinkles to make you think.
weak Gaia hypothesis
strong Gaia hypothesis
properties of living matter
cloud condensation nuclei or CCN
dimethyl sulfphides or DMS
Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Capricorn
international date line
Greenwich Mean Time
3 pieces of evidence for continental drift in Wegener's time
3 new pieces of evidence for continental drift provided by oceanographers
age of rocks
oxygen holocaust or revolution
age of the Earth at 4.6 bya
first appearance of life at 3.8 bya
Age of Bacteria
banded iron formations
atmospheric concentration of oxygen
hydrothermal vents and origins of life
latent heat of vaporization
latent heat of fusion
physical states of matter
what causes upwelling, when and where
atmospheric circulation cells
differential heating of the planet
eastern boundary currents (name four)
western boundary currents (name four)
equatorial currents (name three)
cold core rings
warm core rings
satellite imagery of SST
National Data Buoy Center
sea surface height
One or more of these problems in a slightly modified version (i.e. the exact numbers will be changed) will be given on the midterm. Try working them out and ask a member of your 10-point X-game study group what answer they got. Post a question about these math problems in the Midterm Questions Forum and I will answer it.
1A. You are an ordinary seaman on a ship located at the intersection of the equator and the international date line. You desperately want to move up in ranks because you are tired of cleaning toilets. Your chance comes when the navigator falls overboard while looking at jellyfish. His last words are "One degree of longitude equals 60 nautical miles." A day goes by. The Captain tells you that the ship has sailed sixty (60) nautical miles due east since the tragic accident. If you can tell him the ship's new position, you get the job. What is the ship's new longitude and latitude? (Hint: think about what you need to know to answer this question. Look back through your notes to find the key information.)
1B. You are an ordinary seaman on a ship located at the intersection of the equator and the international date line. You desperately want to move up in ranks because you are tired of cleaning toilets. Your chance comes when the navigator falls overboard while looking at jellyfish. His last words are "One degree of latitude equals 60 nautical miles." A day goes by. The Captain tells you that the ship has sailed sixty (60) nautical miles due north since the tragic accident. If you can tell him the ship's new position, you get the job. What is the ship's new longitude and latitude? (Hint: think about what you need to know to answer this question. Look back through your notes to find the key information.)
2. The Captain, a demanding sort, now wants to know the depth of the water. He gives you a Toys-R-Us Sonar Unit, good enough to report the time it takes a sound pulse to travel from the ship to the bottom and back, but not good enough to calculate the distance. You remember from your oceanography class at Fullerton College that sound travels at approximately 1500 meters per second. You set up the Sonar unit, hit the go button, it pings and 12 seconds later the ping returns. How deep is the bottom in meters?
3. The Captain has an old chart with soundings in miles. Now he wants to know how deep is the bottom in miles. The ship hasn't moved since your first sounding and the ping returns after 12 seconds. How deep is the bottom in miles?
4. How many calories does it take to heat zero degree Celsius liquid water to 100 degree Celsius water vapor (gas)? Why is the answer 640 calories?