Key Words, Concepts and Math Problems
for the midterm

Key Words and Concepts

I recommend that you make several copies of this page. On the first copy, go through each term, look up the definitions/concepts and write them down. Take this sheet everywhere and study it. On the second and all subsequent copies, WRITE down the definitions without looking at the first copy. Review your work. Repeat the exercise until you can write all the definitions without looking at your original copy. DO NOT try to study in your head. Write them down. You will perform miserably on the exam if you just look at the word, say to yourself "I know that" then move on. When you are forced to write something out, you reveal whether you truly understand it or not. If you have trouble with some of these definitions, e-mail me. I have intentionally added a few sprinkles to make you think.

  1. weak Gaia hypothesis

  2. strong Gaia hypothesis

  3. homeostasis

  4. chemical disequilibrium

  5. endosymbiosis

  6. eukaryotes

  7. prokaryotes

  8. archaebacteria

  9. properties of living matter

  10. coccolithophorids

  11. cloud condensation nuclei or CCN

  12. dimethyl sulfphides or DMS

  13. latitude

  14. longitude

  15. Tropic of Cancer

  16. Tropic of Capricorn

  17. Arctic Circle

  18. Antarctic Circle

  19. tropical zone

  20. temperate zone

  21. polar zone

  22. prime meridian

  23. international date line

  24. Greenwich Mean Time

  25. trend

  26. variables

  27. x-axis

  28. y-axis

  29. z-axis

  30. dependent variable

  31. independent variable

  32. scale

  33. contour

  34. multiple x-axes

  35. water column

  36. depth

  37. bathymetry

  38. topography

  39. spatial scale

  40. temporal scale

  41. Pangaea

  42. continental drift

  43. Laurasia

  44. Gondwanaland

  45. Alfred Wegener

  46. Harry Hess

  47. 3 pieces of evidence for continental drift in Wegener's time

  48. 3 new pieces of evidence for continental drift provided by oceanographers

  49. polar reversals

  50. magnetic striping

  51. sea-floor spreading

  52. mid-ocean ridges

  53. sea-floor sediments

  54. age of rocks

  55. divergent boundary

  56. convergent boundary

  57. transform boundary

  58. subduction

  59. oceanic crust

  60. continental crust

  61. basalt

  62. granite

  63. asthenosphere

  64. iron core

  65. planetary differentiation

  66. lithosphere

  67. mantle

  68. convection

  69. oceanic-oceanic convergence

  70. oceanic-continental convergence

  71. continental-continental convergence

  72. submarine trench

  73. submarine canyon

  74. plate tectonics

  75. Tuzo Wilson

  76. hot spots

  77. outgassing

  78. Archaen period

  79. oxygen holocaust or revolution

  80. stromatolites

  81. cyanobacteria

  82. age of the Earth at 4.6 bya

  83. first appearance of life at 3.8 bya

  84. Age of Bacteria

  85. mitochondria

  86. chloroplast

  87. DNA

  88. multicellular life

  89. Volvox

  90. banded iron formations

  91. atmospheric concentration of oxygen

  92. continental shelf

  93. continental slope

  94. continental rise

  95. abyssal plains

  96. seamount

  97. guyot

  98. atoll

  99. zooxanthellae

  100. black smoker

  101. hydrothermal vents and origins of life

  102. subterranean archaebacteria

  103. Europa

  104. Cambrian explosion

  105. K-T boundary

  106. polar molecule

  107. latent heat of vaporization

  108. latent heat of fusion

  109. heat capacity

  110. physical states of matter

  111. evaporation

  112. precipitation

  113. sublimation

  114. transpiration

  115. rain-shadow effect

  116. Coriolis effect

  117. Ekman spiral

  118. upwelling

  119. what causes upwelling, when and where

  120. trade winds

  121. westerlies

  122. horse latitudes

  123. doldrums

  124. atmospheric circulation cells

  125. differential heating of the planet

  126. eastern boundary currents (name four)

  127. western boundary currents (name four)

  128. equatorial currents (name three)

  129. Labrador current

  130. Gulf Stream

  131. cold core rings

  132. eddies

  133. coastal jets

  134. warm core rings

  135. satellite imagery of SST

  136. National Data Buoy Center

  137. TOPEX/Poseidon

  138. sea surface height

  139. ecological succession

Math Problems

One or more of these problems in a slightly modified version (i.e. the exact numbers will be changed) will be given on the midterm. Try working them out and ask a member of your 10-point X-game study group what answer they got. Post a question about these math problems in the Midterm Questions Forum and I will answer it.

1A. You are an ordinary seaman on a ship located at the intersection of the equator and the international date line. You desperately want to move up in ranks because you are tired of cleaning toilets. Your chance comes when the navigator falls overboard while looking at jellyfish. His last words are "One degree of longitude equals 60 nautical miles." A day goes by. The Captain tells you that the ship has sailed sixty (60) nautical miles due east since the tragic accident. If you can tell him the ship's new position, you get the job. What is the ship's new longitude and latitude? (Hint: think about what you need to know to answer this question. Look back through your notes to find the key information.)

1B. You are an ordinary seaman on a ship located at the intersection of the equator and the international date line. You desperately want to move up in ranks because you are tired of cleaning toilets. Your chance comes when the navigator falls overboard while looking at jellyfish. His last words are "One degree of latitude equals 60 nautical miles." A day goes by. The Captain tells you that the ship has sailed sixty (60) nautical miles due north since the tragic accident. If you can tell him the ship's new position, you get the job. What is the ship's new longitude and latitude? (Hint: think about what you need to know to answer this question. Look back through your notes to find the key information.)

2. The Captain, a demanding sort, now wants to know the depth of the water. He gives you a Toys-R-Us Sonar Unit, good enough to report the time it takes a sound pulse to travel from the ship to the bottom and back, but not good enough to calculate the distance. You remember from your oceanography class at Fullerton College that sound travels at approximately 1500 meters per second. You set up the Sonar unit, hit the go button, it pings and 12 seconds later the ping returns. How deep is the bottom in meters?

3. The Captain has an old chart with soundings in miles. Now he wants to know how deep is the bottom in miles. The ship hasn't moved since your first sounding and the ping returns after 12 seconds. How deep is the bottom in miles?

4. How many calories does it take to heat zero degree Celsius liquid water to 100 degree Celsius water vapor (gas)? Why is the answer 640 calories?