A Lost Continent

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THE NEXT MORNING, February 19, I beheld the Canadian entering

my stateroom.  I was expecting this visit.  He wore an expression

of great disappointment.

"Well, sir?" he said to me.

"Well, Ned, the fates were against us yesterday."

"Yes!  That damned captain had to call a halt just as we were going

to escape from his boat."

"Yes, Ned, he had business with his bankers."

"His bankers?"

"Or rather his bank vaults.  By which I mean this ocean, where his

wealth is safer than in any national treasury."

I then related the evening's incidents to the Canadian, secretly hoping

he would come around to the idea of not deserting the captain;

but my narrative had no result other than Ned's voicing deep regret

that he hadn't strolled across the Vigo battlefield on his own behalf.

"Anyhow," he said, "it's not over yet!  My first harpoon missed,

that's all!  We'll succeed the next time, and as soon as this evening,

if need be . . ."

"What's the Nautilus's heading?"  I asked.

"I've no idea," Ned replied.

"All right, at noon we'll find out what our position is!"

The Canadian returned to Conseil's side.  As soon as I was dressed,

I went into the lounge.  The compass wasn't encouraging.

The Nautilus's course was south-southwest. We were turning our

backs on Europe.

I could hardly wait until our position was reported on the chart.

Near 11:30 the ballast tanks emptied, and the submersible rose

to the surface of the ocean.  I leaped onto the platform.

Ned Land was already there.

No more shore in sight.  Nothing but the immenseness of the sea.

A few sails were on the horizon, no doubt ships going as far

as Cape São Roque to find favorable winds for doubling the Cape

of Good Hope.  The sky was overcast.  A squall was on the way.

Furious, Ned tried to see through the mists on the horizon.

He still hoped that behind all that fog there lay those shores

he longed for.

At noon the sun made a momentary appearance.  Taking advantage of this

rift in the clouds, the chief officer took the orb's altitude.

Then the sea grew turbulent, we went below again, and the hatch

closed once more.

When I consulted the chart an hour later, I saw that the Nautilus's

position was marked at longitude 16 degrees 17' and latitude

33 degrees 22', a good 150 leagues from the nearest coast.

It wouldn't do to even dream of escaping, and I'll let the reader

decide how promptly the Canadian threw a tantrum when I ventured

to tell him our situation.

As for me, I wasn't exactly grief-stricken. I felt as if a heavy

weight had been lifted from me, and I was able to resume my regular

tasks in a state of comparative calm.

Near eleven o'clock in the evening, I received a most unexpected

visit from Captain Nemo.  He asked me very graciously if I felt

exhausted from our vigil the night before.  I said no.

"Then, Professor Aronnax, I propose an unusual excursion."

"Propose away, captain."

"So far you've visited the ocean depths only by day and under sunlight.

Would you like to see these depths on a dark night?"

"Very much."

"I warn you, this will be an exhausting stroll.  We'll need to walk

long hours and scale a mountain.  The roads aren't terribly

well kept up."

"Everything you say, captain, just increases my curiosity.

I'm ready to go with you."

"Then come along, professor, and we'll go put on our diving suits."

Arriving at the wardrobe, I saw that neither my companions

nor any crewmen would be coming with us on this excursion.

Captain Nemo hadn't even suggested my fetching Ned or Conseil.

In a few moments we had put on our equipment.  Air tanks,

abundantly charged, were placed on our backs, but the electric lamps

were not in readiness.  I commented on this to the captain.

"They'll be useless to us," he replied.

I thought I hadn't heard him right, but I couldn't repeat

my comment because the captain's head had already disappeared

into its metal covering.  I finished harnessing myself, I felt

an alpenstock being placed in my hand, and a few minutes later,

after the usual procedures, we set foot on the floor of the Atlantic,

300 meters down.

Midnight was approaching.  The waters were profoundly dark,

but Captain Nemo pointed to a reddish spot in the distance, a sort

of wide glow shimmering about two miles from the Nautilus.  What this

fire was, what substances fed it, how and why it kept burning

in the liquid mass, I couldn't say.  Anyhow it lit our way,

although hazily, but I soon grew accustomed to this unique gloom,

and in these circumstances I understood the uselessness of

the Ruhmkorff device.

Side by side, Captain Nemo and I walked directly toward this

conspicuous flame.  The level seafloor rose imperceptibly.

We took long strides, helped by our alpenstocks; but in general

our progress was slow, because our feet kept sinking into a kind

of slimy mud mixed with seaweed and assorted flat stones.

As we moved forward, I heard a kind of pitter-patter above my head.

Sometimes this noise increased and became a continuous crackle.

I soon realized the cause.  It was a heavy rainfall rattling

on the surface of the waves.  Instinctively I worried that I

might get soaked!  By water in the midst of water!  I couldn't

help smiling at this outlandish notion.  But to tell the truth,

wearing these heavy diving suits, you no longer feel the liquid element,

you simply think you're in the midst of air a little denser than air

on land, that's all.

After half an hour of walking, the seafloor grew rocky.

Jellyfish, microscopic crustaceans, and sea-pen coral lit it faintly

with their phosphorescent glimmers.  I glimpsed piles of stones

covered by a couple million zoophytes and tangles of algae.

My feet often slipped on this viscous seaweed carpet,

and without my alpenstock I would have fallen more than once.

When I turned around, I could still see the Nautilus's whitish beacon,

which was starting to grow pale in the distance.

Those piles of stones just mentioned were laid out on the ocean floor

with a distinct but inexplicable symmetry.  I spotted gigantic furrows

trailing off into the distant darkness, their length incalculable.

There also were other peculiarities I couldn't make sense of.

It seemed to me that my heavy lead soles were crushing a litter

of bones that made a dry crackling noise.  So what were these vast

plains we were now crossing?  I wanted to ask the captain, but I still

didn't grasp that sign language that allowed him to chat with his

companions when they went with him on his underwater excursions.

Meanwhile the reddish light guiding us had expanded and inflamed

the horizon.  The presence of this furnace under the waters had me

extremely puzzled.  Was it some sort of electrical discharge?

Was I approaching some natural phenomenon still unknown

to scientists on shore?  Or, rather (and this thought did

cross my mind), had the hand of man intervened in that blaze?

Had human beings fanned those flames?  In these deep strata would

I meet up with more of Captain Nemo's companions, friends he was

about to visit who led lives as strange as his own?  Would I find

a whole colony of exiles down here, men tired of the world's woes,

men who had sought and found independence in the ocean's lower depths?

All these insane, inadmissible ideas dogged me, and in this frame

of mind, continually excited by the series of wonders passing

before my eyes, I wouldn't have been surprised to find on this sea

bottom one of those underwater towns Captain Nemo dreamed about!

Our path was getting brighter and brighter.  The red glow had turned

white and was radiating from a mountain peak about 800 feet high.

But what I saw was simply a reflection produced by the crystal

waters of these strata.  The furnace that was the source of this

inexplicable light occupied the far side of the mountain.

In the midst of the stone mazes furrowing this Atlantic seafloor,

Captain Nemo moved forward without hesitation.  He knew this dark path.

No doubt he had often traveled it and was incapable of losing his way.

I followed him with unshakeable confidence.  He seemed like some

Spirit of the Sea, and as he walked ahead of me, I marveled at his

tall figure, which stood out in black against the glowing background

of the horizon.

It was one o'clock in the morning.  We arrived at the mountain's

lower gradients.  But in grappling with them, we had to venture up

difficult trails through a huge thicket.

Yes, a thicket of dead trees!  Trees without leaves, without sap,

turned to stone by the action of the waters, and crowned here

and there by gigantic pines.  It was like a still-erect coalfield,

its roots clutching broken soil, its boughs clearly outlined

against the ceiling of the waters like thin, black, paper cutouts.

Picture a forest clinging to the sides of a peak in the Harz Mountains,

but a submerged forest.  The trails were cluttered with algae

and fucus plants, hosts of crustaceans swarming among them.

I plunged on, scaling rocks, straddling fallen tree trunks,

snapping marine creepers that swayed from one tree to another,

startling the fish that flitted from branch to branch.

Carried away, I didn't feel exhausted any more.  I followed a guide

who was immune to exhaustion.

What a sight!  How can I describe it!  How can I portray these

woods and rocks in this liquid setting, their lower parts dark

and sullen, their upper parts tinted red in this light whose

intensity was doubled by the reflecting power of the waters!

We scaled rocks that crumbled behind us, collapsing in enormous

sections with the hollow rumble of an avalanche.  To our right and left

there were carved gloomy galleries where the eye lost its way.

Huge glades opened up, seemingly cleared by the hand of man,

and I sometimes wondered whether some residents of these underwater

regions would suddenly appear before me.

But Captain Nemo kept climbing.  I didn't want to fall behind.

I followed him boldly.  My alpenstock was a great help.

One wrong step would have been disastrous on the narrow paths cut

into the sides of these chasms, but I walked along with a firm

tread and without the slightest feeling of dizziness.  Sometimes I

leaped over a crevasse whose depth would have made me recoil had I

been in the midst of glaciers on shore; sometimes I ventured out on

a wobbling tree trunk fallen across a gorge, without looking down,

having eyes only for marveling at the wild scenery of this region.

There, leaning on erratically cut foundations, monumental rocks

seemed to defy the laws of balance.  From between their stony knees,

trees sprang up like jets under fearsome pressure, supporting other

trees that supported them in turn.  Next, natural towers with wide,

steeply carved battlements leaned at angles that, on dry land,

the laws of gravity would never have authorized.

And I too could feel the difference created by the water's

powerful density--despite my heavy clothing, copper headpiece,

and metal soles, I climbed the most impossibly steep gradients with all

the nimbleness, I swear it, of a chamois or a Pyrenees mountain goat!

As for my account of this excursion under the waters, I'm well aware

that it sounds incredible!  I'm the chronicler of deeds seemingly

impossible and yet incontestably real.  This was no fantasy.

This was what I saw and felt!

Two hours after leaving the Nautilus, we had cleared the timberline,

and 100 feet above our heads stood the mountain peak, forming a dark

silhouette against the brilliant glare that came from its far slope.

Petrified shrubs rambled here and there in sprawling zigzags.  Fish rose

in a body at our feet like birds startled in tall grass.  The rocky mass

was gouged with impenetrable crevices, deep caves, unfathomable holes

at whose far ends I could hear fearsome things moving around.

My blood would curdle as I watched some enormous antenna bar my path,

or saw some frightful pincer snap shut in the shadow of some cavity!

A thousand specks of light glittered in the midst of the gloom.

They were the eyes of gigantic crustaceans crouching in their lairs,

giant lobsters rearing up like spear carriers and moving their claws

with a scrap-iron clanking, titanic crabs aiming their bodies

like cannons on their carriages, and hideous devilfish intertwining

their tentacles like bushes of writhing snakes.

What was this astounding world that I didn't yet know?

In what order did these articulates belong, these creatures

for which the rocks provided a second carapace?  Where had nature

learned the secret of their vegetating existence, and for how many

centuries had they lived in the ocean's lower strata?

But I couldn't linger.  Captain Nemo, on familiar terms with

these dreadful animals, no longer minded them.  We arrived at a

preliminary plateau where still other surprises were waiting for me.

There picturesque ruins took shape, betraying the hand of man,

not our Creator.  They were huge stacks of stones in which you

could distinguish the indistinct forms of palaces and temples,

now arrayed in hosts of blossoming zoophytes, and over it all,

not ivy but a heavy mantle of algae and fucus plants.

But what part of the globe could this be, this land swallowed

by cataclysms?  Who had set up these rocks and stones like the dolmens

of prehistoric times?  Where was I, where had Captain Nemo's

fancies taken me?

I wanted to ask him.  Unable to, I stopped him.  I seized his arm.

But he shook his head, pointed to the mountain's topmost peak,

and seemed to tell me:

"Come on!  Come with me!  Come higher!"

I followed him with one last burst of energy, and in a few

minutes I had scaled the peak, which crowned the whole rocky mass

by some ten meters.

I looked back down the side we had just cleared.  There the mountain rose

only 700 to 800 feet above the plains; but on its far slope it crowned

the receding bottom of this part of the Atlantic by a height twice that.

My eyes scanned the distance and took in a vast area lit by intense

flashes of light.  In essence, this mountain was a volcano.

Fifty feet below its peak, amid a shower of stones and slag,

a wide crater vomited torrents of lava that were dispersed in

fiery cascades into the heart of the liquid mass.  So situated,

this volcano was an immense torch that lit up the lower plains

all the way to the horizon.

As I said, this underwater crater spewed lava, but not flames.

Flames need oxygen from the air and are unable to spread underwater;

but a lava flow, which contains in itself the principle of its

incandescence, can rise to a white heat, overpower the liquid element,

and turn it into steam on contact.  Swift currents swept away all this

diffuse gas, and torrents of lava slid to the foot of the mountain,

like the disgorgings of a Mt.  Vesuvius over the city limits

of a second Torre del Greco.

In fact, there beneath my eyes was a town in ruins, demolished,

overwhelmed, laid low, its roofs caved in, its temples pulled down,

its arches dislocated, its columns stretching over the earth;

in these ruins you could still detect the solid proportions

of a sort of Tuscan architecture; farther off, the remains of a

gigantic aqueduct; here, the caked heights of an acropolis along

with the fluid forms of a Parthenon; there, the remnants of a wharf,

as if some bygone port had long ago harbored merchant vessels

and triple-tiered war galleys on the shores of some lost ocean;

still farther off, long rows of collapsing walls, deserted thoroughfares,

a whole Pompeii buried under the waters, which Captain Nemo had

resurrected before my eyes!

Where was I?  Where was I?  I had to find out at all cost, I wanted

to speak, I wanted to rip off the copper sphere imprisoning my head.

But Captain Nemo came over and stopped me with a gesture.

Then, picking up a piece of chalky stone, he advanced to a black

basaltic rock and scrawled this one word:


What lightning flashed through my mind!  Atlantis, that ancient land

of Meropis mentioned by the historian Theopompus; Plato's Atlantis;

the continent whose very existence has been denied by such philosophers

and scientists as Origen, Porphyry, Iamblichus, d'Anville, Malte-Brun,

and Humboldt, who entered its disappearance in the ledger of myths

and folk tales; the country whose reality has nevertheless been accepted

by such other thinkers as Posidonius, Pliny, Ammianus Marcellinus,

Tertullian, Engel, Scherer, Tournefort, Buffon, and d'Avezac; I had

this land right under my eyes, furnishing its own unimpeachable

evidence of the catastrophe that had overtaken it!  So this was

the submerged region that had existed outside Europe, Asia, and Libya,

beyond the Pillars of Hercules, home of those powerful Atlantean

people against whom ancient Greece had waged its earliest wars!

The writer whose narratives record the lofty deeds of those heroic

times is Plato himself.  His dialogues Timaeus and Critias were

drafted with the poet and legislator Solon as their inspiration,

as it were.

One day Solon was conversing with some elderly wise men in the Egyptian

capital of Sais, a town already 8,000 years of age, as documented

by the annals engraved on the sacred walls of its temples.  One of these

elders related the history of another town 1,000 years older still.

This original city of Athens, ninety centuries old, had been invaded

and partly destroyed by the Atlanteans.  These Atlanteans, he said,

resided on an immense continent greater than Africa and

Asia combined, taking in an area that lay between latitude 12 degrees

and 40 degrees north.  Their dominion extended even to Egypt.  They tried

to enforce their rule as far as Greece, but they had to retreat before

the indomitable resistance of the Hellenic people.  Centuries passed.

A cataclysm occurred--floods, earthquakes.  A single night and day

were enough to obliterate this Atlantis, whose highest peaks

(Madeira, the Azores, the Canaries, the Cape Verde Islands)

still emerge above the waves.

These were the historical memories that Captain Nemo's scrawl sent

rushing through my mind.  Thus, led by the strangest of fates,

I was treading underfoot one of the mountains of that continent!

My hands were touching ruins many thousands of years old,

contemporary with prehistoric times!  I was walking in the very place

where contemporaries of early man had walked!  My heavy soles

were crushing the skeletons of animals from the age of fable,

animals that used to take cover in the shade of these trees now

turned to stone!

Oh, why was I so short of time!  I would have gone down the steep

slopes of this mountain, crossed this entire immense continent,

which surely connects Africa with America, and visited its great

prehistoric cities.  Under my eyes there perhaps lay the warlike

town of Makhimos or the pious village of Eusebes, whose gigantic

inhabitants lived for whole centuries and had the strength to raise

blocks of stone that still withstood the action of the waters.

One day perhaps, some volcanic phenomenon will bring these sunken

ruins back to the surface of the waves!  Numerous underwater volcanoes

have been sighted in this part of the ocean, and many ships have

felt terrific tremors when passing over these turbulent depths.

A few have heard hollow noises that announced some struggle of

the elements far below, others have hauled in volcanic ash hurled

above the waves.  As far as the equator this whole seafloor is still

under construction by plutonic forces.  And in some remote epoch,

built up by volcanic disgorgings and successive layers of lava,

who knows whether the peaks of these fire-belching mountains may

reappear above the surface of the Atlantic!

As I mused in this way, trying to establish in my memory every

detail of this impressive landscape, Captain Nemo was leaning

his elbows on a moss-covered monument, motionless as if petrified

in some mute trance.  Was he dreaming of those lost generations,

asking them for the secret of human destiny?  Was it here that this

strange man came to revive himself, basking in historical memories,

reliving that bygone life, he who had no desire for our modern one?

I would have given anything to know his thoughts, to share them,

understand them!

We stayed in this place an entire hour, contemplating its vast plains

in the lava's glow, which sometimes took on a startling intensity.

Inner boilings sent quick shivers running through the mountain's crust.

Noises from deep underneath, clearly transmitted by the liquid medium,

reverberated with majestic amplitude.

Just then the moon appeared for an instant through the watery mass,

casting a few pale rays over this submerged continent.

It was only a fleeting glimmer, but its effect was indescribable.

The captain stood up and took one last look at these immense plains;

then his hand signaled me to follow him.

We went swiftly down the mountain.  Once past the petrified forest,

I could see the Nautilus's beacon twinkling like a star.

The captain walked straight toward it, and we were back on board

just as the first glimmers of dawn were whitening the surface

of the ocean.

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